Thursday, January 23, 2020
The Rationality of Scientific Discovery: The Aspect of the Theory of Creation :: Philosophical Science Scientific Papers
The Rationality of Scientific Discovery: The Aspect of the Theory of Creation ABSTRACT: In order to understand the rationality of scientific creation, we must first clarify the following: (1) the historical structure of scientific creation from starting point to breakthrough, and then to establishment; (2) the process from the primary through the productive aspects of the scientific problem, the idea of creation, the primary conjecture, the scientific hypothesis, and finally the emergence of the genetic structure establishing the theory; and (3) the problem threshold of rationality in scientific creation. Given that the theory of scientific creation adopts the descriptive viewpoint of rationality, it therefore establishes rational principles such as the following: (1) a superlogical mode of thinking; (2) an analysable genetic structure which consists of the primary and productive aspects (including experiential facts, background theory, operational means, higher irrational factors, etc.); (3) a means of recourse to the effect of incubation of a higher idea; (4 ) a movement in thinking from generality to particularity; and (5) the replacement of irrational by rational factors. 1.The Logic Theory of Scientific Discovery and the Irrational Theory of Scientific Discovery The modern forms of the logic theory of scientific discovery have abandoned the discovery model of pure logic, and search after the discovery logic in a broad sense. Both the retrospective inference which Hanson initiated and the inductive which Maclauin elucidated deserve serious attention among them . Their common charateristics are to resort to the irrational factors, at the same time, they are unable to expound the process of emergence of the new ideas. In addition, the rationality of discovery is summed up into "the algorithm" or "the patterns of discovery" is still put forward, and it holds that it is according to the overeconomical principle that the discovery of the scientific laws discovers "the patterns" in experience and data . They are both the different expression of discovery logic, the former is a kind of logic of problem solving, the latter is actually an inductive inference. Their common shortcomings are the simplification and to be unable to reveal how the new ideas occur in the process of scientific creation. The irrational theory of discovery advocates "the method of bisection" of discovery and verification and holds that the scientific discovery is "the intuitional result like poetry" (Popper), and doesn't thoroughly have the possibility of epistemological research (L. Laudan) . The problems of scientific discovery should be studies by psychology and sociology.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
BBC * Breakfast Television, a new venture for the BBC presented by Frank Bough and Selina Scott, began in 1983 and this was followed three years later by daytime television. * Government responsibility for broadcasting and creative industries in the UK lies with the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The Office for Communications Act 2003 merged a number of regulatory bodies into a new regulatory structure headed by the Office of Communications or Ofcom. Ofcom took over responsibilities from the former Independent Television Commission, Radio Authority, Oftel, Radio Communications Agency and Broadcasting Standards Commission. * The BBC is run in the interests of its viewers and listeners. Twelve Governors act as trustees of the public interest and regulate the BBC. They are appointed by the Queen on advice from ministers. Day-to-day BBC operations are run by 16 divisions. The main BBC Executive Board is made up of 9 directors and is chaired by the Director-General. A Creative Board, Journalism Board and Commercial Board report to the Executive Board. The Executive Board answers to the Board of Governors. BBC Governors differ from directors of public companies, whose primary responsibilities are to shareholders and not consumers. BBC Governors represent the public interest, notably the interests of viewers and listeners. The Governors safeguard the BBCÃ¢â¬â¢s independence, set its objectives and monitor its performance. They are accountable to BBC licence payers and Parliament, and publish an Annual Report assessing its performance against objectives CNN * CNN.com is among the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders in online news and information delivery. Staffed 24 hours, seven days a week by a dedicated staff in CNNÃ¢â¬â¢s world headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, and in bureaus worldwide, CNN.com relies heavily on CNNÃ¢â¬â¢s global team of almost 4,000 news professionals. CNN.com features the latest multimedia technologies, from live video streaming to audio packages to searchable archives of news features and background information.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
A Statement on Original Sin First articulated by Augustine (A.D. 354Ã¢â¬â430), the doctrine of original sin holds that all of AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s descendants inherit the guilt of AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s sin and thus incur the punishment for AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s sin. Inheriting AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s guilt at birth, then, presumes one guilty before God at birth and destined for hell. This is the basis for the Catholic need for infant baptism, for the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception (that Mary herself was uniquely conceived free of AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s guilt), and for the belief that salvation is only available through connection with the Church via baptism. Moreover, the belief that God holds AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s descendants personally accountable for AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s sin calls into question the importance of our own free will asÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦That is, if we as Christian believers fail in gaining victory over sin even when we sincerely want to and try, the problem is not with us personally but in our state of having inherited both Ada mÃ¢â¬â¢s guilt and fallen nature. But AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s theology was flawed. While we have indeed inherited AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s fallen nature, we have not inherited his guilt; thus, the universal suffering that humanity endures is not the punishment for AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s sin in particular, it is the consequence of sin in general. And while our inherited fallen nature works against us in overcoming sin, this disadvantage can be overcome through the terms of the new covenant. By means of our personal connection with Christ, the power of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s grace is imparted by the Holy Spirit (sanctification) and accessed on our part through the exercise of our free will (which God honors for us every bit as much as He did for Adam). That is, God provides us moral victory (imparted righteousness) when we acknowledge our helpless condition and sincerely, continuously, and freely choose to surrender our lives to Christ and invite Him to have complete control over us Ã¢â¬â i.e. Ã¢â¬Å"Thy will be d one in my lifeÃ¢â¬ is our constant appeal; with Paul we say, Ã¢â¬Å"I die [to self] dailyÃ¢â¬ (1 Cor. 15:31). And with Christ having fulfilled the legal terms of the everlasting covenant by assuming our guilt and paying its debt on the cross, and inShow MoreRelatedFeminism and Christianity: An Essential Guide by Lynn Japinga671 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesmany years. I think Lynn Japinga did a very good job in writing about this topic in her book, Ã¢â¬Å"Feminism and Christianity: An Essential GuideÃ¢â¬ . Japinga includes in her book the use of the male dominated language in the Bible, the blame for the original sin, and the lack of women gender clerical role authority within the religion world. We start out with the use of the male dominated language in the Bible. Much of the development of Christianity has been primarily mostly by men, so our understandingRead MoreThe Incarnation of Jesus Christ893 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJesus was the most qualified to come back to earth. Jesus is our savior and will always be our savior no matter what the situation. Ã¢â¬Å"The renewal of the creation has been wrought by the self same word who made it in the beginningÃ¢â¬ (athanasius 2). This statement is support that Jesus is the most qualified to come back. Jesus is also the most qualified for many other reasons, one being that Jesus is God and what better person is there than the own creator of our earth? My second question is why are humansRead MoreWhat Was Ambrose s View On Free Will And Grace?1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOfficiis, focusing on book one, grace appears approximately 48 times within the text. Grace is considered a gift from God and the primary cleanser of our sins. Within on the Mysteries, Ambrose states, Ã¢â¬Å"It is not of the waters but of grace that a man is cleansed.Ã¢â¬ (On the Mysteries I.3.17) Augustine took grace to a new level in the sense of Ã¢â¬Å"original sin,Ã¢â¬ which is the idea that humans are born sinful. Ambrose does not seem to use the term grace in the same manner as Augustine and incorporates the ideaRead MoreThe Western And Western Traditions924 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesReligions from around the world all have an ultimate goal that they want to achieve within their lifetime, whether it is reaching enlightenment or getting your will in line with God. The following statement claims that the Eastern and Western traditions only have two goals in lif e and lumps all religions in each region together, Ã¢â¬Å"You Abrahamic faiths are all the same, being religious is an act of will, getting your will in right alignment with God. For us in the East, it is not about will, it isRead MoreMontaigne and Augustine1359 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMedieval and Renaissance Philosophy December 12, 2005 Take-Home Final In regards to Montaigne s statement on page 23 in Apology for Raymond Sebond, I would deduce that he was using the metaphor of nature and natural tendencies in opposition to man s vain, self-seeking faÃ §ade that displaces God the creator. Montaigne s statement appears to (on the surface at least) value mans naturalistic tendencies and graces in a much better light than our own vain-striving presumptions that claim thatRead MoreMany Symbols in the Scarlett Letter879 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Scarlet Letter. The most known one was the letter itself. The meaning of the letter appears clear at first but as the book progresses you see the letterÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning shift with HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s character. The magistrates intended the letter to represent the sin of adultery. And while of course, people did shun her at the very beginning, the Ã¢â¬Å"shamingÃ¢â¬ technique could not weather the test of time. The Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ soon began to lose its shameful meaning and instead become a sym bolic example of HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s courage and showRead MoreCatholicism Exposed in The Lottery by Shirley Jackson Essay1303 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnow it was felt necessary only for the official to speak to each person approaching. (Jackson 366-7) This tradition that the community follows, although violent, stood the test of time and has been going on for a very long time, but JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s statement brings up that the village has taken liberty to pick and choose what elements of the lottery actually happens. In Catholicism, churches have done similar. Every mass has a portion set apart for the Presentation of the Eucharist, but other thanRead MoreAn Integral Part Of All Modern Societies1011 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesall events in the world long before they happenedÃ¢â¬ , as well as the notion of original sin - that Ã¢â¬Å"every person is a sinner by virtue of being humanÃ¢â¬ . This lead to their life revolving around proving to yourself and the ones around you that you have been chosen by god to be saved. Another important point in the Puritan doctrine is that due to the concepts of predestination and their belief that Jesus died to cleanse the sins of only the elect, the idea of atonement through work is non-existent. BecauseRead MoreAnalysis Of Se7en By David Fincher1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSe7en Sins Greed. Envy. Gluttony. Wrath. Lust. Pride. Sloth. These acts and feelings are what most Christians consider the seven deadly sins. If you commit any of these sins, you are doomed to hell and and an agonizing death. While most religious people avoid the sins like the plague and see most people as good samaritans, some see the sins in everyone they encounter like itÃ¢â¬â¢s written all over their face. Se7en, by David Fincher, explores what happens when the people who see the sins in everyoneRead MoreArt Commission Statement 11333 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesArt Commission Statement Paper Art Commission Statement Paper Historically, the Ten Commandments have provided civilization with reason, but are more than a simple set of guidelines. The Greeks originally named the Ten Commands Ã¢â¬Å"Decalogue,Ã¢â¬ because of its verification to JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ word. The Ten Commandments were a promise made by Jesus to the people and if followed would not be in danger of sin. The Ten Commandments hold many moral principles people hold true even today, even in the
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Jonathan Edwards his sermons and works Prospectus draft HIUS 435-D01 August 4, 2017 Joel Leviten Jonathan Edwards was born October 5th, 1703 in East Windsor Connecticut, he was the son of Timothy Edwards who was also a preacher. Jonathan Edwards was a preacher, philosopher, and a Protestant Theologian. Jonathan Edwards was known as the most important and one of the original philosophical theologians of all times. In my Prospectus paper, I will be discussing the sermons and the works of Jonathan Edwards. Jonathan Edwards was a special kind of man, his words when spoke during his sermons and preaching struck complete fear straight into the hearts of his listeners. Jonathan Edwards when compared to other preachers ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The point that he is trying to make is that God has afforded humanity the opportunity to rectify their sins. This act of restraint has given humanity the chance to fixed their ways and return to Christ. Jonathan Edwards sermons were built on what he called he called the ten Ã¢â¬Å"considerationsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Jonathan Edwards 1740Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å" www.rts.edu/sharedresources/documents/global/EdwardsÃ¢â¬ They are as follows, God may cast wicked men into hell at any given moment. 2 The wicked deserve to be cast into hell. Devine justice does not prevent God from destroying the wicked at any moment. 3 The wicked at this moment suffer under Gods condemnation to hell. 4 The wicked-on earth at this moment suffer samples of torments of hell. 5 At any moment God shall permit Satan stands ready to fall upon the wicked and seize them as his own. 6 If it were not for Gods restraint the souls of the wicked would flame into hell. 7 Simply because they are not visible means of death before them at any given moment, the wicked should not feel secure. 8 Simply because it is natural to care for oneself or to think that others may care for them, men should not think themselves safe from Gods wrath. 9 All that wicked men do to save themselves from hells pains shall afford them nothing if they continue to reject Christ. 10 God has n ever promised to save us from hell, except for those contained in Christ through the covenantShow MoreRelatedJonathan Edwards Essay982 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJonathan Edwards (1703-1758) is widely recognized as one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s most profound Theologians. Some might even consider him the master of Puritan revival, since he was the leader of the Great Awakening. During his time he was a devout Calvinist who had the power of single-handedly keeping the Puritan faith strong for over twenty-five years, by using vivid imagery to provoke his audience. Edwards dialect was exquisitely influential and yet wielded with class and ease. This essay argues thatRead More Jonathan Edwards the Great Preacher Essay1604 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespredestination. Jonathan Edwards however sought to arouse the religious intensity of the colonists (Edwards 1) through his preaching. But how and why was Edwards so successful? What influenced him? How did he use diction and symbolism to persuade his lis tener, and what was the reaction to his teachings? In order to understand these questions one must look at his life and works to understand how he was successful. In his most influential sermon, Ã¢â¬Å"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry GodÃ¢â¬ , Jonathan EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢ persuasiveRead MoreEssay Benjamin Franklin Compared to Jonathan Edwards1773 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesEnglish 2327 March 24, 2010 Errata in the Hands of an Un-Angry God: A Comparison of Edwards and Franklin Oberg and Stout put it best in the introduction of their book Benjamin Franklin, Jonathan Edwards, and the Representation of American Culture, Ã¢â¬Å"It is difficult, if not impossible to, think of two more widely studied colonial figures than Benjamin Franklin and Jonathan Edwards. As Franklin and Edwards have been studied individually over generations, so also have they been looked at togetherÃ¢â¬ Read MoreJonathan Edwards Essay Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God2232 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesin the Hands of an Angry God Rhetorical Analysis Essay Jonathan Edwards, a famous preacher in pre-colonial times, composed a sermon that was driven to alert and inject neo Puritanical fear into an eighteenth century congregation. This Bible based and serious audience sought after religious instruction and enlightenment. Through the sermon Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, Edwards offers a very harsh interpretation to humankind. Edwards utilizes various rhetorical techniques to evoke anRead More Jonathan Edwards Sinnners in the Hands of An Angry God Essay1030 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJonathan Edwards Sinnners in the Hands of An Angry God Jonathan Edwards delivered his sermon, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, in Enfield Connecticut on July 8, 1741, the year following George Whitefields preaching tour which helped inspire the Great Awakening. Weeping and emotional conviction among EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢ audiences came at a time of great spiritual thirst. While very foreign to mainstream American opinion today, this extraordinary message was fashioned for a people who were veryRead MoreSinners in the Hands of an Angry God by Jonathan Edwards Essay647 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesSinners in the Hands of an Angry God by Jonathan Edwards Jonathan Edwards grew up in an atmosphere of strict puritan discipline. He became a very religious and devout believer at an early age, and excelled in academics, entering Yale University at the age of thirteen. Many years later he became the pastor of a church that grew with his teachings. His lifestyle reflected his teachings and was a well respected man. His sermons spoke directly at many people and he impactedRead MoreJonathan Edwards Stressed Emotion To Much As Proof Of Phebes Conversion Essay1164 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages10 October, 2017 Whether Jonathan Edwards Stressed Emotion to Much as Proof of Phebe Bartlet s Conversion Is Emotion an important factor in our conversion? In Jonathan Edwards A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God, he speaks of a little girl named Phebe Bartlet, and her conversion to Christianity. In several instances he uses her emotion as evidence for her conversion. We can all agree that Phebe converted to Christianity. Some think that Jonathan Edwards stressed to much on feelingRead MoreEssay on The Innovators of American Literature1066 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswritings, Jonathan Edwards and Benjamin Franklin illustrate American themes in their personal narratives that quintessentially make part of American Literature. Although they lived in different times during the early development of the United States of America and wrote for different purposes, they share common themes. Their influence by their environment, individualism, proposals for a better society, and events that affected their society generate from their writings. By analyzing Jonathan Edwards PersonalRead Mor eThe First Great Awakening And The Age Of Enlightenment1663 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageschurches neglected their freedom of conscious. Additionally, during the First Great Awakening authors, such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield, drew away from the Calvinistic doctrine and preached sermons about GodÃ¢â¬â¢s unconditionally mercy for those sinners who sincerely repented their unholy sins. Furthermore, to prevent people from falling further into temptation, Jonathan Edwards preached about the wrath of God and how the man was not worthy to enter the kingdom of God in his famous sermonRead MoreAnalysis Of Jonathan Edwards s The Hands Of An Angry God 1351 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJonathan Edwards: A Wrath Within Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God is the sermon that Jonathan Edwards is remembered most for; a sermon in which one is fearfully reminded of the scorching tortures of hell that awaits the unrepentant sinner. Within his sermon, Edwards preaches that those sinners plagued by corruption face a malicious judgment; it was the choice made freely by God alone that an imminent wrath had not yet befallen them. The time for one to repent held no guarantee; if God chose
Friday, December 13, 2019
When you watch any movie, TV show or documentary on World War Two, there is one quote that you hear in almost every single one of them. This timeless and moving quote is Ã¢â¬Å"a date that will live in infamy. Ã¢â¬ This was the opening line said by Franklin D Roosevelt in his National address the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. We will write a custom essay sample on The Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is one of the most replayed and well known speeches in American history. It was the declaration of war against the Empire of Japan and entered the United States into one of the greatest wars it would take part in. Franklin D Roosevelt uses pathos, ethos and logos to deliver a resounding speech for the declaration of war and the entrance of the United States in to World War Two. He essentially assigns a third of the speech to each one of these rhetorical speaking tools. The speech was given at 12:30 p. m. on December 8th 1941 to a joint session of congress and was broadcast over radio and television. It was key for the president to get the people as a whole for the war and united for the cause. He wanted to arouse as many strong emotions from the people as possible. Luckily for him this was very easy to accomplish. At every point in history the American people have exploded with outrage at every deceitful military tactic ever used by another nation or people against America. The populace becomes very motivated to take the fight to the enemy to uphold core American values such as patriotism and justice. A prime example of this was the sinking of the U. S. S. Maine. The ship was unexpectedly sunk by Spaniards in the Havana harbor of Cuba. This event is considered the precipitating event of the Spanish-American war. He plays upon the circumstances in the same way that the Americans did with this instance back in 1898. He portrays America as a purely passive victim through his diction in the portion of the speech. FDR mentions multiple times that America and Japan still had ongoing peace talks and that the attack was completely unprovoked. He elegantly uses Pathos at the throughout his speech and really harps on Americas emotions about the event. After Franklin D Roosevelt talks about the surprise attack upon Pearl harbor, he goes on to list all of the other military advances Japan made shortly afterwards. This list of attacks is viewed as him trying to convince the American people why it is logical and necessary for their country to go to war with this aggressive nation. He lists islands all across the pacific and under American control. Each statement is staccato and kept to the point, followed a pause to let each one individually sink in. He says when each attack happened and where. This is a particularly ominous portion of the speech, and was expertly done by the president. Logical explanations are very important to the American people and are the primary basis of why we do what we do. In the last part of the speech Franklin D Roosevelt makes an effort to talk about the character of the American people. Our countries ethics and moral values are the staple of our nation and the reason our people are willing to do everything necessary to preserve and protect it. This acknowledgment of the American ethos is a testament to the greatness of this country and why the war must be fought and will be won. But the biggest portrayal of this ethics and patriotism shown by Roosevelt is unbeknownst to most Americans at this time. The president had polio early in his life, and was paralyzed from the waist down, but he refused to let the American people know this. When he gave the speech he walked up to the podium and stood tall. This is a perfect example of the determination of the American heart to never let bad circumstances stop someone from what they must do. I consider this one of the most important and powerful speeches ever given on American soil. It speaks to every true Americans heart through patriotism and moral fiber. Franklin D Roosevelt delivered the speech fantastically and ignited a war engine within the United States that was unparalleled at the time. This speech is still a powerful symbol today of a great and shaping time of our country and its people. How to cite The Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation, Essay examples
Thursday, December 5, 2019